By G. V. Samsonov

ISBN-10: 1468416081

ISBN-13: 9781468416084

ISBN-10: 1468416103

ISBN-13: 9781468416107

The e-book we're offering to American and different English­ talking readers is a assessment of the paintings at the electron struc­ ture of parts, alloys, and compounds, which used to be all started again within the fifties. This paintings steadily grew right into a process of principles at the electron constitution of condensed subject that's referred to now because the configurational version. This version relies at the assumption of the preferential formation of the main reliable configurations of the localized va­ lence electrons in condensed subject. The life of those good configurations and the alternate of electrons with the de­ localized (collective-state) subsystem determines these prop­ erties that are with regards to the electron constitution. The conclu­ sions which might be drawn from the functions of the configura­ tional version are just qualitative yet they clarify relatively basically the character of varied homes of condensed subject, and they're worthwhile within the look for fabrics with detailed houses. the yankee version has been corrected and supplemented in lots of minor respects. additionally, the chance was once taken to revise completely the part at the basics of the configura­ tional version within the mild of the newest theoretical advancements. different components of the e-book were shortened to cast off fabric which isn't of basic importance or has no longer but been de­ veloped sufficiently fully.

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46 CHAPTER II. ;oJ ~ ..... 0 2 Hq Tl CIl CIl Bi Th Pb ... \u Q) S 1 o u C O~-L __~~__~~__~~__~~~ 20 40 80 50 100 Atomic number Fig. 6. Compressibility of the elements. The compressibility of manganese is quite high (Fig. 6) because of the re-formation of the pairs of the s2 and d 5 configurations under pressure (these pairs are partly dissociated in the formation of crystals from free atoms). Therefore, we can expect rhenium also to have a considerable compressibility but, in this case, the anomaly should be much less because of the much higher stability of the d 5 states in rhenium compared with manganese (under normal pressure).

Clearly, high-temperature modifications should also be observed for Dy, Er, Ho, and Tm. The temperatures of the a - f3 transitions in these metals should decrease in a regular manner from dysprosium to thulium provided the temperatures sufficient for the excitation of the f1 and f14 configurations and for their transformation into the d 5 configuration lie below the melting points of these elements. rnYSTAL STRUCTURE AND POLYMORPHISM 45 An important conclusion which follows from the interpretation of polymorphism suggested in [174] is that polymorphic transitions are due to changes in the statistical weights of the stable and intermediate configurations and changes in the density of the de localized electrons in a crystal, irrespective of the cause of these changes.

However, the filled 4f shell and the associated increase of the energy gap between the sand d levels hinder the s - d excitation at higher temperatures and reduces the rate of growth of the statistical weight of the d 5 configuration. Therefore, the "critical" statistical weight of the d 5 configurations in hafnium is reached at much higher temperatures than in zirconium. The statistical weight of the stable d 5 configurations in the transition metals of groups V and VI (vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten) is in excess of60% at room temperature.

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A Configurational Model of Matter by G. V. Samsonov

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