By Gwendolyn Leick
This Dictionary supplies a accomplished survey of the complete variety of old close to japanese structure from the Neolithic around huts in Palestine to the enormous temples of Ptolemaic Egypt. Gwendolyn Leick examines the improvement of the vital types of historical structure inside of their geographical and ancient context, and describes positive factors of significant websites similar to Ur, Nineveh and Babylon, in addition to a few of the lesser-known websites. She additionally covers the differences of common old architectural buildings corresponding to pyramids, tombs and homes, information the development fabric and strategies hired, and clarifies expert terminology.
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture
See also AXIS. Beth-Shan (modern Beisan) Palestine, see map p. xix. Eighteen levels of occupation, ranging from the Chalcolithic to Arab times, were discovered. The archaeological reports, especially those concerning architecture, only deal with levels IX to VII (c. 14th and 13th C BC). Of interest are the so-called Canaanite Temples. The installation of level IX had a longitudinal and irregular layout. A long corridor on the S side led to a stepped altar. There were three offering tables in a large court behind the altar.
There Baked bricks set in bitumen (Babylon, palace of Nebukadrezzar) are indeed numerous bitumen springs in South Mesopotamia as well as on the Dead Sea. There is some evidence that the substance (called ittu or kupru in Akkadian) was indeed used as MORTAR: eg at ABU SHAHREIN or UR, where the plano-convex bricks during the Early Dynastic period were laid in bitumen. But generally its use was restricted to the purpose of waterproofing. Burnt bricks laid in bitumen form an efficient protection against dampness (see Nebukadrezzar’s palace in BABYLON).
Above ground, a mudbrick superstructure resting on stone and PISÉ foundations enclosed a single large chamber. The habit of interring the king in a stone sarcophagus inside underground vaults may derive from Assyria. Next to the tombs was an open-air temple with four stelae and an altar surrounded by a stone wall on four sides. Such installations are associated with the Urartian funerary cult practices. when he was digging at nearby UR. He discovered interesting Early Dynastic remains of a ZIGGURAT, a small settlement and the sanctuary dedicated to Ninhutrsag built by A-anni-padda (c.
A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture by Gwendolyn Leick