By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This book provides the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken through fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the fabricated from large examine through the authors and members in box equipment and workforce learn classes on the college of California, Berkeley, and involves ten chapters masking the segmental phonology, tone procedure, morphology, and sentence constitution, by way of appendices at the Nzadi humans and background and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound adjustments. additionally integrated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a couple of fish species. sooner than this paintings, Nzadi had no longer even been pointed out within the literature, and at the moment nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the research of Nzadi is its huge grammatical simplification, leading to buildings really varied from these of canonical Bantu languages. even supposing Nzadi has misplaced many of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable classification prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun classification contract in genitive buildings. different components of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause structures, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet accomplished grammar presents extensive insurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic homes that would be of strength curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people drawn to this sector of the DRC, but in addition to typologists, normal linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
The main alternation concerns the effect that a nasal has on a following consonant. 23], where it was observed that the postnasal consonant must be a stop or affricate. 46]. 50] Esaa EsáN esen ‘feather’ ‘tear’ ‘louse’ ntsaa ntsáN ntsen ‘feathers’ ‘tears’ ‘lice’ As seen, the /s/ of the singular form occuring after the singular prefix e- or E- becomes [ts] after the plural prefix n-. While we expect a similar change of /f/, /v/ and /z/ to [pf], [bv] and [dz], respectively, in the plural, no stems beginning with /v/ or /z/ belong to this singularplural pairing, and the one f-initial noun, efur ‘dust’, does not take a nasal in the plural.
Cw or Cy) sequence. The maximum size monosyllabic stem is thus CGVVC, of which six entries occur in the lexicon including the verbs o-byE@E$r ‘to drum’, o-nwaan ‘to fight’, and o-swáàn ‘to argue’. e. not with a Cw or Cy sequence or on a long vowel. ) L and HL, on the other hand, can appear with any syllable shape. g. *dé- ‘eat’, *kú- ‘to die’, *pá- ‘give’. The H of CV syllables is thus in complementary distribution with the HL of other syllable shapes. 49] 53 L-L L-HL L-H o-C(G)V(V)(C) o-C(G)V(V)(C) o-CV L L -L L H -L L H -L As seen, verb roots have either /H/ or /L/ tone.
Mbéè/ ‘friend’ /dz"‡n`/ ‘name’ /Ngèé/ ‘pity’ ! ! ! ) pity’ Absorption of the final L of (L)HL appears to apply whenever two words with these tones follow each other in succession (and without a major break or pause). Thus, the same tonal absorption takes place between a verb and an object noun or between object nouns. 16] /ndé â tûm okáàr òNkàán/ ! /ndé â sûm okáàr òNkàán/ ! ndé â túm òkáár òNkàán ‘he has sent the woman a book’ ndé â súm òkáár òNkàán ‘he has bought the woman a book’ Absorption of the H of LH is, on the other hand, more complicated.
A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo by Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu