By Beck, David

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A few ideophones have identical non-reduplicated forms but differ in meaning and in reduplicative pattern: (55) xalaxala ‘a wheelbarrow jolting its load as it rolls along’ xalala ‘red-hot rocks crackling from heat’ lamalama ‘a fire flaming’ lamama ‘coals glowing red’ pon÷ßpon÷ß ‘large objects dropping into water’ pon÷ßußu ‘water falling in streams’ Ideophones are discussed in more detail in Beck (to appear). 3. Numerals and numeral classifiers Like many other Mesoamerican languages, UNT makes use of a vigesimal numeral system.

As in the imperfective, the Class 3 perfective resembles the Class 1 paradigm, although it is complicated by the interaction of the person-markers with the stem-final /n/. One result of the interaction of the stemfinal consonant and the second-person object suffix, -n, is homophony between perfective forms with second-person objects and imperfective forms with third-person objects — hence, iklaÓ÷tsín ‘I see him/her/it’ or ‘I saw you’; laÓ÷tsín ‘s/he sees him/her/it’ or ‘s/he sees you’; talaÓ÷tsín ‘they see him/her/it’ or ‘they see you’.

Musu…má…¬ ‘he is kissing her’ vs. tamusu…maÓ…ná…¬ ‘they are kissing her’). Like the perfect suffix, the progressive morpheme has a certain amount of morphophonemic interaction with the person-suffixes, shown in Table 26. INC — — ka…musu…maÓ…ná…uw 2PL kila…musu…maÓ…ná…uw — ka…musu…paÓ…na…ntít 3PL kinka…tamusu…maÓ…ná…n ka…tamusu…maÓ…ná…n tamusu…maÓ…ná…¬ Table 26: Progressive transitive forms (√musú… ‘kiss someone’) 41 inflections are essentially the same for all three inflection classes of active verb, barring the assimilation of the final /n/ of Class 2b and Class 3 verbs to the initial nasal of the suffix.

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A grammatical sketch of Upper Necaxa Totonac by Beck, David

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