By A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov

ISBN-10: 0792311841

ISBN-13: 9780792311843

ISBN-10: 0792317718

ISBN-13: 9780792317715

ISBN-10: 0792322614

ISBN-13: 9780792322610

Hemistry is the technological know-how approximately breaking and forming of bonds among atoms. probably the most very important techniques for natural chemistry is breaking bonds C–H, in addition to C–C in a variety of compounds, and basically, in hydrocarbons. between hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, hexane and so on. ), are in particular appealing as substrates for chemical variations. the reason for this is that, at the one hand, alkanes are the most ingredients of oil and traditional gasoline, and for this reason are the important feedstocks for chemical undefined. nevertheless, those elements are recognized to be the fewer reactive natural compounds. Saturated hydrocarbons will be known as the “noble gases of natural chemistry” and, if that is so, the 1st consultant in their kin – methane – might be in comparison with tremendous inert helium. As in all comparisons, this parallel among noble gases and alkanes isn't really absolutely actual. certainly the variations of alkanes, together with methane, were identified for a very long time. those reactions contain the interplay with molecular oxygen from air (burning – the most resource of energy!), in addition to a few mutual interconversions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. notwithstanding, these kinds of variations happen at increased temperatures (higher than 300–500 °C) and tend to be characterised by way of an absence of selectivity. The conversion of alkanes into carbon dioxide and water in the course of burning is an incredibly helpful approach – yet now not from a chemist perspective.

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Summing up both the equations we get and the hydrocarbon oxidation rate at early stages where the rate of branching may be neglected will be The low O–O bond energy causes the rate of radical formation in reactions 3 and 3’ in the process of hydroperoxide accumulation, to exceed the chain initiation rate, which is the reason for the total reaction rate increase during the process of hydroperoxide accumulation. The reaction rate will stop increasing when the hydroperoxide accumulation rate via reaction 2 becomes equal to the rate of its decomposition into radicals via reactions 3 and 3’.

6. 7. 8. 9. (a) Sykes, P. A Guidebook to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry; Longman: London, 1971, Ch. 6. (b) Dneprovskiy, A. ; Temnikova, T. I. Theoretical Principles of Organic Chemistry, Khimiya: Leningrad, 1979, Chpts. 14, 15 (in Russian). (a) Taqui Khan, M. ; Martell, A. E. Homogeneous Catalysis by Metal Complexes; Vol. 1, Academic Press: New York, 1974, p. 143. (b) Walling, C. Acc. Chem. Res. 1975, 8, 125. (c) Karakhanov, E. ; Narin, S. ; Dedov, A. G. Appl. Organomet. Chem. 1990, 5, 445. (d) Ishii, Y.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1967, 89, 4546. 19 20 References for Chapter I 10. Gol’dshleger, N. ; Tyabin, M. ; Shilov, A. ; Shteinman, A. A. Zh. Fiz. Khim. 1969, 43, 2174 (in Russian). 11. (a) Gol’dshleger, N. ; Es’kova, V. ; Shilov, A. ; Shteinman, A. A. Zh. Fiz. Khim. 1972, 46, 1353 (in Russian). (b) Rudakov, E. ; Zamashchikov, V. ; Belyaeva, N. ; Rudakova, R. I. Zh. Fiz. Khim. 1973, 47, 2732 (in Russian). (c) Tret’akov, V. ; Arzamaskova, L. ; Ermakov, Yu. I. Kinet. Katal. 1974, 15, 538 (in Russian), (d) Cooper, T.

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Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons in the Presence of Metal Complexes by A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov

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