By Henning Struchtrup

ISBN-10: 3662437147

ISBN-13: 9783662437148

ISBN-10: 3662437155

ISBN-13: 9783662437155

This textbook provides a radical therapy of engineering thermodynamics with functions to classical and glossy strength conversion devices.

Some emphasis lies at the description of irreversible methods, resembling friction, warmth move and combining and the overview of the similar paintings losses. higher use of assets calls for excessive efficiencies accordingly the relief of irreversible losses might be visible as one of many major ambitions of a thermal engineer. This publication presents the mandatory tools.

Topics comprise: vehicle and airplane engines, including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet; steam and gasoline strength vegetation, together with complicated regenerative platforms, sun tower and compressed air power garage; blending and separation, together with opposite osmosis, osmotic energy crops and carbon sequestration; part equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion strategies and gas cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.

The e-book contains approximately three hundred end-of-chapter difficulties for homework assignments and checks. the cloth awarded suffices for 2 or 3 full-term classes on thermodynamics and effort conversion.

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Example text

This derivative is known as the specific heat (or specific heat capacity) at constant volume, cv = ∂u ∂T . 14) as cv dT = ˙ δQ Qdt = . 16) From this equation we see that cv is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 kg of substance by 1 K at constant volume. The specific heat can be measured by controlled heating of a fixed amount of substance in a fixed volume system, and measurement of the ensuing temperature difference; its SI unit is kgkJK . ∂u In general, cv (T, v) = ∂T is a function of temperature and specific volv ume.

14 47 Example: Friction Loss One litre of water in an adiabatic container is stirred such that the initial average velocity of the water is V1 = 5 ms . Stirring stops, and due to internal friction and friction between water and container walls the water will come to rest after a while. The water still moves after the stirrer is removed, but we have no control over the water motion: this is an irreversible process. We compute the change of temperature in the equilibration process. After stirring stops, the system is isolated, no heat and work are exchanged, ˙ = 0, potential energy remains constant, dEpot = 0.

8) As an example, Fig. 5 shows the inhomogeneous distribution of mass density ρ in a system. Note that due to inhomogeneity, the density is a function of → → location − r = {x, y, z} of the element dV , hence ρ = ρ (− r ). ρ (r) dV, dm z r y x m= ρ (r) dV → Fig. 8 Quasi-static and Fast Processes 17 Processes and Equilibrium States A process is any change in one or more properties occurring within a system. The system depicted in Fig. 1 can be manipulated by moving the piston or propeller, and by exchanging heat.

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Advanced Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion by Henning Struchtrup

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