By K P Prabhakaran Nair
''This is an efficient substitute to the chemically propelled commercial agriculture of eco-friendly Revolution that has ended in hostile environmental fallout on Indian soils. Black Pepper has a chequered historical past. It used to be in reality the 'spice battle' among the Arabs, the Portuguese, the Dutch and the British that resulted in the colonisation of India, which started with the touchdown of Vasco da Gama on Kappad seashore. within the ebook, Prbhakaran Nair strains the starting place, background, worldwide unfold, improvement, agronomy, meals, economic climate, global exchange, pharmacopoeia and finish items of the 2 spice vegetation of the realm, often called the 'king' and 'queen' of spices. The e-book has been introduced by way of Elsevier overseas. The digital e-book has been introduced at the new 'Elsevier Insights' venture, a brand new inspiration in digital publishing.''--bnlive.in.com
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Extra info for Agronomy and Economy of Black Pepper and Cardamom. The King and Queen of Spices
Four harvests are possible in 1 year, with a multiplication ratio of 1:40. A prolific root system develops, and field establishment is very good. In Sarawak (Malaysia), on average, 54 rooted cuttings could be obtained (Ghawas and Miswan, 1984), and the method has been successfully field tested in the experimental farm of the Indian Institute of Spices Research. 5 shows the bamboo technique developed in Sri Lanka for vegetative pepper propagation. Pepper can be planted on flat surfaces and slopy land.
Management of foot rot is, perhaps, the most challenging aspect of pepper cultivation. There are various aspects to the control measures, such as cultural, phytosanitary, biological, and chemical. The most important among the cultural measures refer to maintenance of good drainage. Stagnant water leads to anaerobic conditions triggering germination of pathogen propagules. A decrease in the production of phenol oxidase, phytoalexin, and fixed nitrogen, combined with suppressed mycorrhiza, leads to host plant susceptibility in anaerobic conditions (Drew and Lynch, 1980).
Hymenophyllum and P. attenuatum showed remarkable resistance to R. similis (Venkitesan and Setty, 1978). Though P. colubrinum has been found to be immune to R. , 1994), crosses between P. nigrum and P. colubrinum have been unsuccessful until now. The solution for cross transfer of resistance from resistant to cultivated species might be found through the biotechnological route, but, as of now, it still is very challenging. The gene transfer mechanism in pepper is still very poorly understood. There is also the possibility of employing biological organisms, as in the case of controlling diseases, to control nematode infestation.
Agronomy and Economy of Black Pepper and Cardamom. The King and Queen of Spices by K P Prabhakaran Nair